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In his conflict with the Church, Galileo was also largely vindicated. Enlightenment thinkers like Voltaire used tales of his trial often in simplified and exaggerated form to portray Galileo as a martyr for objectivity.
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He was a college dropout. Galileo, whose father was a lute player and music theorist, was born in Pisa, Italy.
As a preteen, Galileo began studying at a monastery near Florence and considered becoming a monk; Four centuries ago, the Italian scientist Galileo Galilei put his liberty and life on the line to convince the religious establishment that the Copernican model of the solar system—in which the Earth and the other planets revolved around the sun—represented physical reality.
The letter, uncovered at the Royal Society in London, appears to solve a Enlightenment thinkers in Nicolaus Copernicus was a Polish astronomer known as the father of modern astronomy.
He was the first modern European scientist to propose that Earth and other planets revolve around the sun, or the Heliocentric Theory of the universe.
Prior to the publication of his major In , Galileo entered the University of Pisa to study medicine. Armed with prodigious intelligence and drive, he soon became fascinated with many subjects, particularly mathematics and physics.
While at Pisa, Galileo was exposed to the Aristotelian view of the world, then the leading scientific authority and the only one sanctioned by the Roman Catholic Church.
At first, Galileo supported this view, like any other intellectual of his time, and was on track to be a university professor.
However, due to financial difficulties, Galileo left the university in before earning his degree. Galileo continued to study mathematics after leaving the university, supporting himself with minor teaching positions.
During this time he began his two-decade study on objects in motion and published The Little Balance , describing the hydrostatic principles of weighing small quantities, which brought him some fame.
This gained him a teaching post at the University of Pisa, in While there, Galileo conducted his fabled experiments with falling objects and produced his manuscript Du Motu On Motion , a departure from Aristotelian views about motion and falling objects.
Galileo developed an arrogance about his work, and his strident criticisms of Aristotle left him isolated among his colleagues.
In , his contract with the University of Pisa was not renewed. Galileo quickly found a new position at the University of Padua , teaching geometry, mechanics and astronomy.
The appointment was fortunate, for his father had died in , leaving Galileo entrusted with the care of his younger brother.
During his year tenure at Padua, he gave entertaining lectures and attracted large crowds of followers, further increasing his fame and his sense of mission.
In , Galileo met Marina Gamba, a Venetian woman, who bore him three children out of wedlock: daughters Virginia and Livia, and son Vincenzo.
He never married Marina, possibly due to financial worries and possibly fearing his illegitimate children would threaten his social standing.
Galileo worried his daughters would never marry well, and when they were older, had them enter a convent. Maria Celeste remained in contact and supported her father through letters until her death.
No letters from Arcangela survive. In July , Galileo learned about a simple telescope built by Dutch eyeglass makers and soon developed one of his own.
In August, he demonstrated it to some Venetian merchants, who saw its value for navigation and spotting ships. The merchants gave Galileo a salary to manufacture several of them.
Using his telescope to explore the universe, Galileo observed the moon and found Venus had phases like the moon, proving it rotated around the sun, which refuted the Aristotelian doctrine that the Earth was the center of the universe.
In , he published his observations of sunspots, which also refuted Aristotelian doctrine that the sun was perfect.
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But shortly thereafter, in his Letters on Sunspots , he reported that the telescope revealed the shapes of both stars and planets to be "quite round".
From that point forward, he continued to report that telescopes showed the roundness of stars, and that stars seen through the telescope measured a few seconds of arc in diameter.
As described in his Dialogue Concerning the two Chief World Systems , his method was to hang a thin rope in his line of sight to the star and measure the maximum distance from which it would wholly obscure the star.
From his measurements of this distance and of the width of the rope, he could calculate the angle subtended by the star at his viewing point.
Like most astronomers of his day, Galileo did not recognise that the apparent sizes of stars that he measured were spurious, caused by diffraction and atmospheric distortion, and did not represent the true sizes of stars.
However, Galileo's values were much smaller than previous estimates of the apparent sizes of the brightest stars, such as those made by Tycho Brahe and enabled Galileo to counter anti-Copernican arguments such as those made by Tycho that these stars would have to be absurdly large for their annual parallaxes to be undetectable.
Galileo made a number of contributions to what is now known as engineering , as distinct from pure physics.
Between and , Galileo devised and improved a geometric and military compass suitable for use by gunners and surveyors.
For gunners, it offered, in addition to a new and safer way of elevating cannons accurately, a way of quickly computing the charge of gunpowder for cannonballs of different sizes and materials.
As a geometric instrument, it enabled the construction of any regular polygon , computation of the area of any polygon or circular sector, and a variety of other calculations.
Under Galileo's direction, instrument maker Marc'Antonio Mazzoleni produced more than of these compasses, which Galileo sold along with an instruction manual he wrote for 50 lire and offered a course of instruction in the use of the compasses for lire.
In , Galileo constructed a thermometer , using the expansion and contraction of air in a bulb to move water in an attached tube. In , Galileo was, along with Englishman Thomas Harriot and others, among the first to use a refracting telescope as an instrument to observe stars, planets or moons.
The name "telescope" was coined for Galileo's instrument by a Greek mathematician, Giovanni Demisiani ,   at a banquet held in by Prince Federico Cesi to make Galileo a member of his Accademia dei Lincei.
He gave one of these instruments to Cardinal Zollern in May of that year for presentation to the Duke of Bavaria,  and in September, he sent another to Prince Cesi.
The word was meant to be analogous with "telescope". In , having determined the orbital periods of Jupiter's satellites, Galileo proposed that with sufficiently accurate knowledge of their orbits, one could use their positions as a universal clock, and this would make possible the determination of longitude.
He worked on this problem from time to time during the remainder of his life, but the practical problems were severe. The method was first successfully applied by Giovanni Domenico Cassini in and was later used extensively for large land surveys; this method, for example, was used to survey France, and later by Zebulon Pike of the midwestern United States in For sea navigation, where delicate telescopic observations were more difficult, the longitude problem eventually required development of a practical portable marine chronometer , such as that of John Harrison.
Galileo was invited on several occasions to advise on engineering schemes to alleviate river flooding. In Mario Guiducci was probably instrumental in ensuring that he was consulted on a scheme by Bartolotti to cut a new channel for the Bisenzio River near Florence.
Galileo conducted several experiments with pendulums. It is popularly believed thanks to the biography by Vincenzo Viviani that these began by watching the swings of the bronze chandelier in the cathedral of Pisa, using his pulse as a timer.
Later experiments are described in his Two New Sciences. Galileo claimed that a simple pendulum is isochronous , i.
In fact, this is only approximately true,  as was discovered by Christiaan Huygens. Galileo also found that the square of the period varies directly with the length of the pendulum.
Galileo's son, Vincenzo, sketched a clock based on his father's theories in The clock was never built and, because of the large swings required by its verge escapement , would have been a poor timekeeper.
Galileo is lesser known for, yet still credited with, being one of the first to understand sound frequency. By scraping a chisel at different speeds, he linked the pitch of the sound produced to the spacing of the chisel's skips, a measure of frequency.
In , Galileo described an experimental method to measure the speed of light by arranging that two observers, each having lanterns equipped with shutters, observe each other's lanterns at some distance.
The first observer opens the shutter of his lamp, and, the second, upon seeing the light, immediately opens the shutter of his own lantern.
The time between the first observer's opening his shutter and seeing the light from the second observer's lamp indicates the time it takes light to travel back and forth between the two observers.
Galileo reported that when he tried this at a distance of less than a mile, he was unable to determine whether or not the light appeared instantaneously.
Galileo put forward the basic principle of relativity , that the laws of physics are the same in any system that is moving at a constant speed in a straight line, regardless of its particular speed or direction.
Hence, there is no absolute motion or absolute rest. This principle provided the basic framework for Newton's laws of motion and is central to Einstein's special theory of relativity.
A biography by Galileo's pupil Vincenzo Viviani stated that Galileo had dropped balls of the same material, but different masses , from the Leaning Tower of Pisa to demonstrate that their time of descent was independent of their mass.
The experiment described was actually performed by Simon Stevin commonly known as Stevinus and Jan Cornets de Groot ,  although the building used was actually the church tower in Delft in In his Discorsi , Galileo's character Salviati, widely regarded as Galileo's spokesman, held that all unequal weights would fall with the same finite speed in a vacuum.
But this had previously been proposed by Lucretius  and Simon Stevin. Galileo proposed that a falling body would fall with a uniform acceleration, as long as the resistance of the medium through which it was falling remained negligible, or in the limiting case of its falling through a vacuum.
He did not, for instance, recognise, as Galileo did, that a body would fall with a strictly uniform acceleration only in a vacuum, and that it would otherwise eventually reach a uniform terminal velocity.
Galileo expressed the time-squared law using geometrical constructions and mathematically precise words, adhering to the standards of the day.
It remained for others to re-express the law in algebraic terms. He also concluded that objects retain their velocity in the absence of any impediments to their motion,  thereby contradicting the generally accepted Aristotelian hypothesis that a body could only remain in so-called "violent", "unnatural", or "forced" motion so long as an agent of change the "mover" continued to act on it.
Galileo stated: "Imagine any particle projected along a horizontal plane without friction; then we know, from what has been more fully explained in the preceding pages, that this particle will move along this same plane with a motion which is uniform and perpetual, provided the plane has no limits".
While Galileo's application of mathematics to experimental physics was innovative, his mathematical methods were the standard ones of the day, including dozens of examples of an inverse proportion square root method passed down from Fibonacci and Archimedes.
The analysis and proofs relied heavily on the Eudoxian theory of proportion , as set forth in the fifth book of Euclid's Elements.
This theory had become available only a century before, thanks to accurate translations by Tartaglia and others; but by the end of Galileo's life, it was being superseded by the algebraic methods of Descartes.
The concept now named Galileo's paradox was not original with him. His proposed solution, that infinite numbers cannot be compared, is no longer considered useful.
The Galileo affair was largely forgotten after Galileo's death, and the controversy subsided. The Inquisition's ban on reprinting Galileo's works was lifted in when permission was granted to publish an edition of his works excluding the condemned Dialogue in Florence.
Interest in the Galileo affair was revived in the early 19th century, when Protestant polemicists used it and other events such as the Spanish Inquisition and the myth of the flat Earth to attack Roman Catholicism.
In , Pope Pius XII , in his first speech to the Pontifical Academy of Sciences , within a few months of his election to the papacy, described Galileo as being among the "most audacious heroes of research He was energetic on this point and regretted that in the case of Galileo.
On 15 February , in a speech delivered at the Sapienza University of Rome ,   Cardinal Ratzinger later Pope Benedict XVI cited some current views on the Galileo affair as forming what he called "a symptomatic case that permits us to see how deep the self-doubt of the modern age, of science and technology goes today".
Her verdict against Galileo was rational and just and the revision of this verdict can be justified only on the grounds of what is politically opportune.
He did, however, say: "It would be foolish to construct an impulsive apologetic on the basis of such views. In March , the head of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences, Nicola Cabibbo , announced a plan to honour Galileo by erecting a statue of him inside the Vatican walls.
According to Stephen Hawking , Galileo probably bears more of the responsibility for the birth of modern science than anybody else,  and Albert Einstein called him the father of modern science.
Galileo's astronomical discoveries and investigations into the Copernican theory have led to a lasting legacy which includes the categorisation of the four large moons of Jupiter discovered by Galileo Io , Europa , Ganymede and Callisto as the Galilean moons.
Other scientific endeavours and principles are named after Galileo including the Galileo spacecraft ,  the first spacecraft to enter orbit around Jupiter, the proposed Galileo global satellite navigation system , the transformation between inertial systems in classical mechanics denoted Galilean transformation and the Gal unit , sometimes known as the Galileo, which is a non- SI unit of acceleration.
Partly because the year was the fourth centenary of Galileo's first recorded astronomical observations with the telescope, the United Nations scheduled it to be the International Year of Astronomy.
The International Year of Astronomy was intended to be a global celebration of astronomy and its contributions to society and culture, stimulating worldwide interest not only in astronomy but science in general, with a particular slant towards young people.
Planet Galileo and asteroid Galilea are named in his honour. Galileo is mentioned several times in the "opera" section of the Queen song, " Bohemian Rhapsody ".
Twentieth-century plays have been written on Galileo's life, including Life of Galileo by the German playwright Bertolt Brecht , with a film adaptation of it, and Lamp At Midnight by Barrie Stavis ,  as well as the play "Galileo Galilei".
Kim Stanley Robinson wrote a science fiction novel entitled Galileo's Dream , in which Galileo is brought into the future to help resolve a crisis of scientific philosophy; the story moves back and forth between Galileo's own time and a hypothetical distant future and contains a great deal of biographical information.
This coin also commemorates the th anniversary of the invention of Galileo's telescope. The obverse shows a portion of his portrait and his telescope.
The background shows one of his first drawings of the surface of the moon. In the silver ring, other telescopes are depicted: the Isaac Newton Telescope , the observatory in Kremsmünster Abbey , a modern telescope, a radio telescope and a space telescope.
In , the Galileoscope was also released. Galileo's early works describing scientific instruments include the tract entitled The Little Balance La Billancetta describing an accurate balance to weigh objects in air or water  and the printed manual Le Operazioni del Compasso Geometrico et Militare on the operation of a geometrical and military compass.
The former was based on Aristotelian—Archimedean fluid dynamics and held that the speed of gravitational fall in a fluid medium was proportional to the excess of a body's specific weight over that of the medium, whereby in a vacuum, bodies would fall with speeds in proportion to their specific weights.
It also subscribed to the Philoponan impetus dynamics in which impetus is self-dissipating and free-fall in a vacuum would have an essential terminal speed according to specific weight after an initial period of acceleration.
Galileo's The Starry Messenger Sidereus Nuncius was the first scientific treatise to be published based on observations made through a telescope.
It reported his discoveries of:. Galileo published a description of sunspots in entitled Letters on Sunspots  suggesting the Sun and heavens are corruptible.
The Letters on Sunspots also reported his telescopic observations of the full set of phases of Venus, and his discovery of the puzzling "appendages" of Saturn and their even more puzzling subsequent disappearance.
In , Galileo prepared a manuscript known as the " Letter to the Grand Duchess Christina " which was not published in printed form until This letter was a revised version of the Letter to Castelli , which was denounced by the Inquisition as an incursion upon theology by advocating Copernicanism both as physically true and as consistent with Scripture.
In , Galileo published The Assayer —Il Saggiatore , which attacked theories based on Aristotle's authority and promoted experimentation and the mathematical formulation of scientific ideas.
The book was highly successful and even found support among the higher echelons of the Christian church. Despite taking care to adhere to the Inquisition's instructions, the claims in the book favouring Copernican theory and a non-geocentric model of the solar system led to Galileo being tried and banned on publication.
Despite the publication ban, Galileo published his Discourses and Mathematical Demonstrations Relating to Two New Sciences Discorsi e Dimostrazioni Matematiche, intorno a due nuove scienze in in Holland , outside the jurisdiction of the Inquisition.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Italian polymath. For other uses, see Galileo disambiguation and Galileo Galilei disambiguation.
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